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Infrared Imaging Abstracts for 1998

The following Abstracts of journal literature and patent specifications are taken, with kind permission, from Imaging Abstracts, published by Pira International on behalf of The Royal Photographic Society of Great Britain.

The abstracts are Copyright © 1997-2003 Pira International on behalf of the RPS. Original documents are in English unless otherwise stated. For further information on Imaging Abstracts, which is available on paper, online and on CD-ROM, contact Pira International or email infocentre@pira.co.uk.

Other Abstracts: 1993-5, 1996, 1997, 1999-2001, 2002-

 

Development of the Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrix Target Trackability Metric for Imaging Infrared Missile Systems

Brackney B A, Helton M K, Hammon R K (Dynetics Inc Huntsville AL USA)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 240-54

This study by the US Army examines the target signatures associated with missiles by the use of infra-red images. Several years' research have led to the development of a Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrix based Trackability Metric, which is now used for algorithm development in the imaging of missiles by the Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (MRDEC). 4 refs.

Multi-frame Enhancement of FLIR and Infrared Seeker Images

Smith B W (Div Weapons Syst Defence Sci Technol Organ Salisbury SA Australia)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 231-9

A study has been carried out into the enhancement of infrared images, in particular those used in target tracking during aircraft air-to-air combat. Several low-resolution frames are collected and used to generate a single high-resolution frame. Some of the issues involved, and examples of how they are addressed, are given. 10 refs.

On the Next Generation of Imaging Infrared Seekers for Anti-aircraft Missiles

Bell W A, Glasgow B B (Lab Signature Technol Georgia Tech Res Inst Atlanta GA)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 220-30

A survey is given of progress being made for using IR imaging with anti-aircraft missiles predicted to be in use between the years 2010 and 2020. Results come from a survey of technical literature available from several different databases. 44 refs.

Laboratory Testing of Dithered Infrared Imaging Systems

Dawson J A, Chambliss M A, Kimbel C M, Owen P R (Dynetics Inc Huntsville AL USA)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 165-74

A study has been carried out into dithered infrared imaging systems, and the amount of aliasing reduction that can be achieved. Tests are described whereby it is possible to determine the effectiveness of the dithering technique. These tests involve using a 2D fast Fourier Transform (FFT) which in turn gives information about the amount of aliasing. 12 refs.

MTF Measurement Technique for GOES Imager

Overbeck J, Shea J (ITT Aerosp-Commun Div Fort Wayne IN USA)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 155-64

Work using the GOES (geostationary operational environmental satellite) imager has examined methods of reducing test time and improving accuracy by increasing the number of points on the MTF curve. A continuous frequency MTF curve is obtained from the line spread function (LSF) by scanning a single slit target. Tests to validate the technique are described. 2 refs.

High-performance 256*244 PtSi Schottky-barrier IRCCD Imager

Ruey-Nan Y, Ing-Song L, Shiunn-Horng Y, Ray-Huar L, Wen-Sheng W (Chung Shan Inst of Sci and Technol Lung-Tan Taiwan)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 148-54

A hand-held staring imager using monolithic PtSi is described. The device, which can be integrated into miniature cooler assemblies, is low cost and high-performance. The infrared camera system is capable of giving a noise equivalent temperature difference of less than 0.1K. 11 refs.

A Compact, Modular, MWIR FPA Imager with Exceptional Sensitivity and Resolution

Forsthoefel J, Sanders J, Davis M, Nicol F (Cincinnati Electron Corp Mason OH USA)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 133-46

A compact, high-performance imaging IR sensor using focal plane array (FPA) detectors has been developed by Cincinnati Electronics. It uses a 640*512 pixel InSb FPA together with a 2-axis, micro-scanned, 256*256 array. Various packaging designs are possible making it suitable for a variety of environments.

Influence of Spectral Response Dispersion on the Performances of Infrared Imaging Systems

Dantes D, Renard C (Satellite Oper Aerospatiale Cannes France)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 97-103

A study has been carried out into the effects of spectral response dispersion on the radiometric properties of infrared imaging systems having large numbers of pixels. A theoretical discussion of the factors involved is given, taking into account the observed performance of the systems themselves.

Model of Image Generation in Optronic (electro-optical) Sensor Systems (IGOSS)

Wigren C (Dept Electron Warfare Assessments Defence Sci Establ Linkoping Sweden)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 89-96

An investigation into Image Generation in Optronic Sensor Systems (IGOSS) has resulted in a model for studying different optronic sensors under various conditions. The model is very versatile and can be used in a number of situations, including examining the effects of vibrations, movement of sensor platform, etc. 6 refs.

Static Image System MRTD Modeling

Kauffman C, Madigan J, Pfister W (CAI Recon-Opt Inc Barrington IL USA)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 83-88

The traditional method of assessing infrared imaging systems is by Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference (MRTD). Whilst current techniques are generally acceptable at video frame rates, more accuracy is needed in the display of static image frames, for example those used for reconnaissance purposes. This paper gives results predicted by the Forward Looking Infrared 92 (FLIR92) program, together with measured data. 5 refs.

Multi-spectral Band Selection for Satellite-based Systems

Clodius W B, Weber P G, Borel C C, Smith B W (Los Alamos National Lab NM USA)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 11-21

The design and subsequent evaluation of a satellite based multispectral imaging system is reviewed. The sensor is sensitive to visible through to the far infrared radiation. Some of the criteria involved, and the effect on costs, are discussed. 14 refs.

Infrared Imaging in Deep Vein Thrombosis

Harding J R (Gwent Hospital Newport Wales UK)
Imag. Sci. J. vol. 46, no. 3/4, 1998, pp 149-150

Infrared imaging provides a cost-effective first screening method for suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT). If a negative result is obtained with IR imaging, i.e. there is no disruption of the normal temperature gradient of the limb, no DVT is present. If a positive result is obtained with IR imaging, further, more invasive or costly methods, such as Doppler ultrasound, are required to confirm the presence of a DVT.

Bath and the Story of Thermal Imaging

Ring F (Royal National Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases Bath UK)
Imag. Sci. J. vol. 46, no. 3/4, 1998, pp 177-178

The history of infrared (IR) imaging is traced from the discovery of IR light by Herschel in 1800, through the first thermogram in 1840 to modern IR detectors and scanners developed for the medical field from 1958 onwards. The work at the hospital in Bath is highlighted with the use of thermograms for assessing the severity of arthritic joints and the effectiveness of new drug treatments. More advanced thermal imaging equipment is briefly described

Thermal Imaging of the Human Hand

Ammer K (Ludwig Boltzmann Research Institute for Physical Diagnostics Vienna Austria)
Imag. Sci. J. vol. 46, no. 3/4, 1998, pp 179-180

Liquid crystals may be used as thermal imaging media in a non-invasive test of the temperature gradients in the hand. False colour imaging helps to visualise temperature gradients but care must be taken to set the sensitivity of the false colours to record the changes well. Both hyper- and hypo-thermal changes can occur with various diseases. Inflammation of the joints as in rheumatoid arthritis, and algodystrophy can cause increases in temperature. Nerve entrapment, Reynaud's phenomenon, and vibration-induced cold fingers can all be characterised by drops in hand temperatures. 5 refs.

Low-Cost Multichannel Thermal and Visual System

Wiecek B, Zwolenik S (Technical University of Lodz Poland)
Imag. Sci. J. vol. 46, no. 3/4, 1998, pp 181-182

New multi-channel interfaces allow thermal and CCD visual images to be captured in parallel and in real time. Software dedicated for three-dimensional image processing allows mixing of the thermal and visual images, and distance or correct directional emissivity can be measured. Digital image processing can be applied to the images (e.g. histogram stretching, filtering, zooming etc.) and a number of measurement functions are available including calibrated thermal measurements, thermal cross-sections, directional emissivity correction. Photogrammetry algorithms are also available. 2 refs.

Demonstration of a Far Infrared Streak Camera

Drabbels M, Lankhuijzen G M, Noordam L D (FOM Inst for Atomic and Molecular Physics Amsterdam Netherlands)
IEEE J. Quantum Electron. vol. 34, no. 11, 1998, pp 2138-2144

An atomic infrared streak camera has been constructed which is sensitive to the mid- and far-infrared regions of the spectrum (wavelengths 5 to 85 µm). A FELIX free electron laser has been used to determine its temporal and spectral properties, and its temporal resolution was shown to be 1.2 ps. 17 refs.

An Infrared Camera Reduction/analysis Package

Chan S J (Cambridge University GB)
Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. vol. 145, 1998, pp 181-183

The 1.5 m Carlos Sanchez telescope associated with the new Infrared Camera/Instituto de Astrofisica de Canaris at the Teide Observatory has produced a large amount of data, and an infrared-array reduction and analysis package has been formed to reduce this information to more convenient proportions.

Dynamic Infrared Scene Projection: a Review

Williams O M (Defence Science and Technology Organization Salisbury Australia)
Infrared Phys. Technol. vol. 39, no. 7, 1998, pp 473-486

The present status of dynamic projection of infrared images is reviewed, with 26 references. The types of projection considered include the emissive, transmissive, reflective, laser scanner and phosphor.

Far-infrared Streak Camera (using Rydberg Atom Photocathode)

Noordam L D, Drabbels M, Lankhuijzen G M, Rella C (ROM-AMOLF Amsterdam Netherlands)
Summaries of Papers presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Francisco, USA, May 1998, vol. 6, 1998, pp 519-520 publ. Washington DC, USA, Opt. Soc. America, IEEE Catalogue no. 98CH36178

The spectral response of streak cameras is normally limited to that of the available photocathodes, which is below 1.5µm. By the use of a Rydberg atom photocathode, however, it is possible to extend the sensitivity into the far IR region.

Patent: Infrared Camera Lens

Koyama M (Nikon Corp)
US 5,909,307

A lens for use in an infrared camera contains two main lens groups, which from the object side have negative and positive refractive powers, respectively. The first lens group consists of a negative meniscus lens with a convex surface facing the object side; the second lens group contains three lens sub-groups, with positive, negative and positive refractive powers, respectively.

A Kind of Novel ETM-based Combined Photocathode for Infrared Streak Camera

Fan W H, Hou X, Wang T C, Du L, Gong P (Xi'an Jiaotong University China)
J. Infrared Millim. Waves China vol. 17, no. 6, 1998, pp 405-1410

ETM = electron-trapping material. A combined IR photocathode has been designed, and its use in a streak camera is described. The spectral sensitivity of the instrument is extended to 1.6 µm, with a make time resolution around 24 ps. 12 refs.

Development of the Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrix Target Trackability Metric for Imaging Infrared Missile Systems

Brackney BA, Helton MK, Hammon RK (Dynetics Inc Huntsville AL USA)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 240-54

This study by the US Army examines the target signatures associated with missiles by the use of infra-red images. Several years' research have led to the development of a Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrix based Trackability Metric, which is now used for algorithm development in the imaging of missiles by the Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (MRDEC). 4 refs.

Multi-frame Enhancement of FLIR and Infrared Seeker Images

Smith BW (Div Weapons Syst Defence Sci Technol Organ Salisbury SA Australia)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 231-9

A study has been carried out into the enhancement of infrared images, in particular those used in target tracking during aircraft air-to-air combat. Several low-resolution frames are collected and used to generate a single high-resolution frame. Some of the issues involved, and examples of how they are addressed, are given. 10 refs.

On the Next Generation of Imaging Infrared Seekers for Anti-aircraft Missiles

Bell WA, Glasgow BB (Lab Signature Technol Georgia Tech Res Inst Atlanta GA USA)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 220-30

A survey is given of progress being made for using IR imaging with anti-aircraft missiles predicted to be in use between the years 2010 and 2020. Results come from a survey of technical literature available from several different databases. 44 refs.

Laboratory Testing of Dithered Infrared Imaging Systems

Dawson JA, Chambliss MA, Kimbel CM, Owen PR (Dynetics Inc Huntsville AL USA)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 165-74

A study has been carried out into dithered infrared imaging systems, and the amount of aliasing reduction that can be achieved. Tests are described whereby it is possible to determine the effectiveness of the dithering technique. These tests involve using a 2D fast Fourier Transform (FFT) which in turn gives information about the amount of aliasing. 12 refs.

MTF Measurement Technique for GOES Imager

Overbeck J, Shea J (ITT Aerosp-Commun Div Fort Wayne IN USA)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 155-64

Work using the GOES (geostationary operational environmental satellite) imager has examined methods of reducing test time and improving accuracy by increasing the number of points on the MTF curve. A continuous frequency MTF curve is obtained from the line spread function (LSF) by scanning a single slit target. Tests to validate the technique are described. 2 refs.

High-performance 256*244 PtSi Schottky-barrier IRCCD Imager

Ruey-Nan Y, Ing-Song L, Shiunn-Horng Y, Ray-Huar L, Wen-Sheng W (Chung Shan Inst of Sci and Technol Lung-Tan Taiwan)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 148-54

A hand-held staring imager using monolithic PtSi is described. The device, which can be integrated into miniature cooler assemblies, is low cost and high-performance. The infrared camera system is capable of giving a noise equivalent temperature difference of less than 0.1K. 11 refs.

A Compact, Modular, MWIR FPA Imager with Exceptional Sensitivity and Resolution

Forsthoefel J, Sanders J, Davis M, Nicol F (Cincinnati Electron Corp Mason OH USA)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 133-46

A compact, high-performance imaging IR sensor using focal plane array (FPA) detectors has been developed by Cincinnati Electronics. It uses a 640*512 pixel InSb FPA together with a 2-axis, micro-scanned, 256*256 array. Various packaging designs are possible making it suitable for a variety of environments.

Influence of Spectral Response Dispersion on the Performances of Infrared Imaging Systems

Dantes D, Renard C (Satellite Oper Aerospatiale Cannes France)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 97-103

A study has been carried out into the effects of spectral response dispersion on the radiometric properties of infrared imaging systems having large numbers of pixels. A theoretical discussion of the factors involved is given, taking into account the observed performance of the systems themselves.

Model of Image Generation in Optronic (electro-optical) Sensor Systems (IGOSS)

Wigren C (Dept Electron Warfare Assessments Defence Sci Establ Linkoping Sweden)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 89-96

An investigation into Image Generation in Optronic Sensor Systems (IGOSS) has resulted in a model for studying different optronic sensors under various conditions. The model is very versatile and can be used in a number of situations, including examining the effects of vibrations, movement of sensor platform, etc. 6 refs.

Static Image System MRTD Modeling

Kauffman C, Madigan J, Pfister W (CAI Recon-Opt Inc Barrington IL USA)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 83-88

The traditional method of assessing infrared imaging systems is by Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference (MRTD). Whilst current techniques are generally acceptable at video frame rates, more accuracy is needed in the display of static image frames, for example those used for reconnaissance purposes. This paper gives results predicted by the Forward Looking Infrared 92 (FLIR92) program, together with measured data. 5 refs.

Multi-spectral Band Selection for Satellite-based Systems

Clodius WB, Weber PG, Borel CC, Smith BW (Los Alamos National Lab NM USA)
Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. vol. 3377, 1998, pp 11-21

The design and subsequent evaluation of a satellite based multispectral imaging system is reviewed. The sensor is sensitive to visible through to the far infrared radiation. Some of the criteria involved, and the effect on costs, are discussed. 14 refs.

Infrared Imaging in Deep Vein Thrombosis

Harding J R (Gwent Hospital Newport Wales UK)
Imag. Sci. J. vol. 46, no. 3/4, 1998, pp 149-150

Infrared imaging provides a cost-effective first screening method for suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT). If a negative result is obtained with IR imaging, i.e. there is no disruption of the normal temperature gradient of the limb, no DVT is present. If a positive result is obtained with IR imaging, further, more invasive or costly methods, such as Doppler ultrasound, are required to confirm the presence of a DVT.

Bath and the Story of Thermal Imaging

Ring F (Royal National Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases Bath UK)
Imag. Sci. J. vol. 46, no. 3/4, 1998, pp 177-178

The history of infrared (IR) imaging is traced from the discovery of IR light by Herschel in 1800, through the first thermogram in 1840 to modern IR detectors and scanners developed for the medical field from 1958 onwards. The work at the hospital in Bath is highlighted with the use of thermograms for assessing the severity of arthritic joints and the effectiveness of new drug treatments. More advanced thermal imaging equipment is briefly described.

Thermal Imaging of the Human Hand

Ammer K (Ludwig Boltzmann Research Institute for Physical Diagnostics Vienna Austria)
Imag. Sci. J. vol. 46, no. 3/4, 1998, pp 179-180

Liquid crystals may be used as thermal imaging media in a non-invasive test of the temperature gradients in the hand. False colour imaging helps to visualise temperature gradients but care must be taken to set the sensitivity of the false colours to record the changes well. Both hyper- and hypo-thermal changes can occur with various diseases. Inflammation of the joints as in rheumatoid arthritis, and algodystrophy can cause increases in temperature. Nerve entrapment, Reynaud's phenomenon, and vibration-induced cold fingers can all be characterised by drops in hand temperatures. 5 refs.

Low-Cost Multichannel Thermal and Visual System

Wiecek B, Zwolenik S (Technical University of Lodz Poland)
Imag. Sci. J. vol. 46, no. 3/4, 1998, pp 181-182

New multi-channel interfaces allow thermal and CCD visual images to be captured in parallel and in real time. Software dedicated for three-dimensional image processing allows mixing of the thermal and visual images, and distance or correct directional emissivity can be measured. Digital image processing can be applied to the images (e.g. histogram stretching, filtering, zooming etc.) and a number of measurement functions are available including calibrated thermal measurements, thermal cross-sections, directional emissivity correction. Photogrammetry algorithms are also available. 2 refs.

Demonstration of a Far Infrared Streak Camera

Drabbels M, Lankhuijzen GM, Noordam LD (FOM Inst for Atomic and Molecular Physics Amsterdam Netherlands)
IEEE J. Quantum Electron vol. 34, no. 11, 1998, pp 2138-2144

An atomic infrared streak camera has been constructed which is sensitive to the mid- and far-infrared regions of the spectrum (wavelengths 5 to 85 µm). A FELIX free electron laser has been used to determine its temporal and spectral properties, and its temporal resolution was shown to be 1.2 ps. 17 refs.

An Infrared Camera Reduction/analysis Package

Chan SJ (Cambridge University GB)
Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. vol. 145, 1998, pp 181-183

The 1.5 m Carlos Sanchez telescope associated with the new Infrared Camera/Instituto de Astrofisica de Canaris at the Teide Observatory has produced a large amount of data, and an infrared-array reduction and analysis package has been formed to reduce this information to more convenient proportions.

Dynamic Infrared Scene Projection: a Review

Williams OM (Defence Science and Technology Organization Salisbury Australia)
Infrared Phys. Technol. vol. 39, no. 7, 1998, pp 473-486

The present status of dynamic projection of infrared images is reviewed, with 26 references. The types of projection considered include the emissive, transmissive, reflective, laser scanner and phosphor.

Far-infrared Streak Camera (using Rydberg Atom Photocathode)

Noordam LD, Drabbels M, Lankhuijzen GM, Rella C (ROM-AMOLF Amsterdam Netherlands)
Summaries of Papers presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Francisco, USA, May 1998, vol. 6, 1998, pp 519-520 publ. Washington DC, USA, Opt. Soc. America, IEEE Catalogue no. 98CH36178

The spectral response of streak cameras is normally limited to that of the available photocathodes, which is below 1.5 µm. By the use of a Rydberg atom photocathode, however, it is possible to extend the sensitivity into the far IR region.

A Kind of Novel ETM-based Combined Photocathode for Infrared Streak Camera

Fan WH, Hou X, Wang TC, Du L, Gong P (Xi'an Jiaotong University China)
J. Infrared Millim. Waves China vol. 17, no. 6, 1998, pp 405-1410

ETM = electron-trapping material. A combined IR photocathode has been designed, and its use in a streak camera is described. The spectral sensitivity of the instrument is extended to 1.6 µm, with a make time resolution around 24 ps. 12 refs.

Data Analysis with ISOCAM

Starck J L (Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay Gif-sur-Yvette France)
Proc. Conf. Infrared Space Astronomy, Today and Tomorrow, Les Houches, France, November 1998, pp 65-88

The ISOCAM was an infrared camera on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) spacecraft, flown between November 1995 and May 1998. It was sensitive to radiation with wavelengths between 2.5 and 18 µm. The different algorithms which have been devised for the analysis of the ISOCAM data are discussed. 23 refs.

More background on infrared photography
Technical background Thermal Imaging NASA IR Video Camera
IR 'Colour' Mapping Imaging Abstracts Noctovision
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